Registration procedures and residence permits
Kinds of employment
- EU/EEA nationals and their family members wishing to enter the Slovak Republic have a special legal status and are only required to have a valid travel document (passport, national identity card or equivalent identity document).
- A citizen of the European Union (EU), European Economic Area (EEA) or the Swiss Confederation can reside in the Slovak Republic for more than three months if he or she: is employed in the Slovak Republic, or is a self-employed person in the Slovak Republic, or is studying at primary or secondary school or university in the Slovak Republic, or has sufficient means to cover his or her residence and that of family members, and has health insurance in Slovakia, or is likely to become employed, or is a family member accompanying an EU/EEA citizen who meets the above requirements
- An EU citizen is required to declare the start and place of residence to the Aliens Department of the police within 10 working days from the date of entry to the Slovak Republic if the accommodation provider (hotel) does not do this for them, i.e. if they are staying with friends or family. The police will require a confirmation of accommodation or the name and birth number of the person with whom they are staying.
- An EU citizen who intends to remain in the Slovak Republic for longer than three months is required to apply to have his or her residence registered within 30 days after the expiry of the three months since entering the country. The application is free of charge and should be made in person, using the official form, at the relevant Police Aliens Department. Applications should be accompanied by a valid identity card or travel document and documents proving any of the facts listed above (employment contract, trade licence, confirmation from school, bank statement etc.).
- On the day of submission of the full application the police department will issue a certificate containing the name, surname and address of the EU citizen and the date of registration. If the EU citizen does not submit evidence of accommodation, the address given in the certificate will be the municipality where the EU citizen will reside. An EU citizen may apply for issue of a residence permit valid for five years (a plastic card) in person at the competent Police Aliens Department. The EU citizen is required to present a valid travel document or identity card, two photographs (3 x 3.5 cm) and evidence of accommodation with the residence permit application.
- EU citizens have the right of permanent residence once they have resided legally in the Slovak Republic for a continuous period of five years. In certain cases it is possible to apply for permanent residence before the five-year period has expired. The right of residence or the right of permanent residence for an EU citizen ceases to exist if: the person concerned notifies the respective police department in writing that he/she is terminating his/her residence, or he/she has been expelled from the country, or the respective police department has deprived him/her of the right of residence or permanent residence, or he/she has died or has been declared dead, or he/she has acquired Slovak citizenship.
According to the Labour Code, persons under 15 years of age are forbidden to work.
The majority of employment contracts in Slovakia are open-ended.
Employment is agreed for an indefinite period unless the employment contract expressly specifies the duration of the employment or where the legal requirements for signing an employment contract for a particular period are not met in the employment contract or an amendment thereto. Employment is also for an indefinite period if there is no written employment contract for a particular period.
Employment for a fixed period may be agreed for a maximum of two years. A fixed-term employment relationship may be extended or renewed for a two-year period not more than twice.
A renewed fixed-term employment relationship is a relationship agreed within six months after termination of the previous employment relationship for a fixed period between the same parties.
In an employment contract with an employee, an employer may agree shorter working hours than the statutory weekly working time. An employer may agree with an employee a change in the statutory weekly working time to a shorter working week and vice versa. The shorter working time need not be spread over all working days. An employee employed for a shorter working time is entitled to a proportional salary. An employee employed for a shorter working time may not be favoured or disadvantaged in comparison with other employees.
There is growing interest in forms of work other than full-time, such as flexible forms of working or flexible work arrangements. They may be in pure form or combined (e.g. flexible working time and working from home, part-time and compressed working week, job-sharing and working from home, etc.). Some forms are a combination of several flexible forms (e.g. job-sharing or project work). These forms of working can be more readily applied to less-qualified posts (e.g. administrative or services) or those requiring a high level of expertise (e.g. translators, researchers, journalists, editors, reporters, accountants, consultants, programmers, graphic designers, architects, artists, auditors, doctors and court experts).